How Cell Service Actually Works

How Cell Service Actually Works

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Writing by Sam Denby
Editing by Alexander Williard
Animation by Josh Sherrington
Sound by Graham Haerther
Thumbnail by Simon Buckmaster


Select footage courtesy Getty and AP; Select imagery courtesy Geolayers; Select music courtesy Epidemic sound


  1. ttalkman on November 22, 2022 at 7:12 am

    Like ❤ everything, the Devil’s in the details, or at best, possibly spam. Please hold, your call 📱 is important to us. Now, if only we had a human ❤ on the other end to answer our call 📱 .

  2. Mr Suds on November 22, 2022 at 7:12 am

    THIS GUY!! his voice is like a weird guy in a trench coat

  3. Menon on November 22, 2022 at 7:12 am

    Aamzing video! I knew most of the underlying physics, but towards the ent there were a lot of thigns that just suddenly explained new things to me! Loved this lightbulb moment

  4. Meriem k on November 22, 2022 at 7:13 am


  5. CrabmanSteve on November 22, 2022 at 7:13 am

    As a telecomm headend guy, this is absolutely a killer breakdown.

    In this line of work it takes 7 or more years to really have the full understanding and ability to apply your knowledge, it’s a very "black magic" kind of technology.

    Especially when you start getting past OFDM and further into theory.

  6. Adam Brooks on November 22, 2022 at 7:13 am

    3:39 it’s *inversely* proportional

  7. Siam Imam on November 22, 2022 at 7:15 am

    Dude your videos are just incredible!! I wish the world was full of teachers like you. Then we would all be smart and educated

  8. Sahil Mishra on November 22, 2022 at 7:17 am

    Yet again we see “Hexagon is the bestagon”

  9. August Osani on November 22, 2022 at 7:17 am

    “This is electromagnetic radiation. You can’t see it-“
    Actually, electromagnetic radiation is the only thing I can see.

  10. StephenMJohnson1024 on November 22, 2022 at 7:17 am

    But what is a wavelength? Is it a way to represent the number of times successive protons reach a location? How does wavelength change? Interference?

  11. Plazman on November 22, 2022 at 7:19 am


  12. 4lifejeph on November 22, 2022 at 7:20 am

    To sum it up,
    Cell phones work because of magic

  13. Fiddler OnTheNet on November 22, 2022 at 7:21 am

    This was really phenomenally explained. It’s at great level with just enough complexity, but not too much that I can’t share with with folks without a science/math background. Thanks!

  14. pavan v on November 22, 2022 at 7:21 am


  15. Estroncio on November 22, 2022 at 7:24 am

    Sam must be an electrical or telecoms engineer right? I mean, this is crazy

  16. Hoang Tran on November 22, 2022 at 7:26 am

    🤣😂🌍🌎🌎🌏🌐🌐🌐🗺🗾🗾🧭⛰⛰⛰🌋🌋🗻🗻🏕🏘🛖🪨🏗🏗🏗⛰🏟🏛🏛🏛🏟🏟🏞🏞🏜🏜🏖🏖🏚🏢🏤🏥🏥🏦🏨🏨🏩🏪🏪🏫⛩🕍🗽🗽🗼💒🏰🏭🏬🕍⛲⛲🏬🏬🏯🏰💒💒🗽🗽⛪🛕🕍🕍⛩⛩ fukc yeah go San francisco Vietcong /cuban / jew cartel and Comunist power. Go human trafficking power

  17. jajjiejajjie on November 22, 2022 at 7:29 am

    An amazing way to teach a complex process! As a professional services engineer of a large test equipment vendor, I work with products that test the various transport networks, various virtual functions of the 5G core, as well as the virtual functions of the radio access network. Getting up to speed on the technology has been a wild and wonderful journey. When we test this stuff in the lab, it’s so incredibly difficult getting past the interop, Routing, and functional issues to just get one single UE to make a call from the radio to the DN. I’m surprised that all of this stuff works in the first place in a production environment.

    I mean, you can be driving down the freeway at 90 miles an hour, for an hour and a half, and still be on the same phone call or meeting…the whole way! The stuff that happens behind the scenes…handovers from tower to tower, gNB’s using beam forming antenna arrays following you as you drive past the radio. The various components in the cell tower and your phone making real time decisions based on the signal to noise ratio to prepare to hand you off from the serving cell to the secondary cell…and a ton of their stuff that goes on behind the scenes…without the user behind that UE noticing one single thing happening…amazing!

    Getting up to speed on this stuff definitely gave me a better appreciation of my smartphone and the service it connects to.

  18. Pcriged explores. on November 22, 2022 at 7:30 am

    This was amazing. Thank you!

  19. dirk funk on November 22, 2022 at 7:31 am

    Not to be pedantic, but 2 meters is VHF, not UHF.

  20. tulsatrash on November 22, 2022 at 7:32 am

    Fantastic video. Thank you for making this.

  21. Mike V on November 22, 2022 at 7:35 am

    It’s wonderful, but it all goes for naught as soon as the ignorant clowns who work for the county go out with a tractor to put in a water line and dig through the fiber-optic cable that feeds the cell tower that provides my cell service and my fixed wireless broadband internet. This happens every several months, and it takes one to four days for the landline phone company to fix it.

  22. Gloria Runuya on November 22, 2022 at 7:38 am

    I listen to this to feel smart

  23. jo po on November 22, 2022 at 7:40 am

    Can’t help but shake my head at all these comments. Say NO to 5G! It is a control/kill grid! It is a Weapon!

  24. Rohan Williams on November 22, 2022 at 7:42 am


  25. CJC 3636 on November 22, 2022 at 7:43 am

    That spreading code tech…. *Mind BLOWN!*. I’m just glad they’re really smart math heroes in the world to have figured all this out!

  26. Rich Lobato on November 22, 2022 at 7:46 am

    " 2 meters" is VHF not UHF. " 70 cm is UHF. Radio waves do not bend around objects, they bounce off / reflect off of objects.
    Other than that, good vid.

  27. D Amore on November 22, 2022 at 7:48 am

    Poorly done. Overly complicated for average person.

  28. Chairman of the Bored on November 22, 2022 at 7:50 am

    07:37 if you’re about to click the "back" arrow.

  29. ccosephvv on November 22, 2022 at 7:50 am

    Are we going to run out of numbers?

  30. S Dubs on November 22, 2022 at 7:51 am

    Can you hear me now?

  31. Tony Bark on November 22, 2022 at 7:53 am

    So, basically binary code has unlocked Pandora’s box.

  32. Tiger474 on November 22, 2022 at 7:53 am

    So which part of this (or a different part entirely) is what breaks down when you get massive crowds together like at a sporting event

  33. AxXxXo Valentino e lnformacione por ti di itXxx on November 22, 2022 at 7:54 am

    *Are you being sprayed? Shine a 390 nanometer light(black light) through a one inch hole in the top of a large cardboard box filled with outside air, and sitting on the ground to see what is being sprayed on you! Post it! Comments are being suppressed, to cover up a genocide happening like during WW2.* News media no commenting =propaganda, which can’t stand scrutiny(UK propaganda central). *Roman Catholic Adolf Hitler exterminated under the guise of a typhus epidemic and now under a corona virus /monkey pox pandemic. It is not Russia or China spraying American skies in parallel lines. It is not China or Russia venting gases to take your breath away in your dwellings. You need a radiation detector and an air quality monitor with logging. It usually happens at night while you sleep and you probably don’t even know. NATO is the military arm of Revelation17,18, and is about to start a war with China, saying they attacked Taiwan. Taiwan until very recently was acknowledged by the majority of all nations of the world as being part of China. Taiwan has no embassy, as they are not a Country. It was just recently changed on US documents in order to start the coming war. The US has just passed a law similar to the one during WW2, to supply endless weapons to Taiwan. WW2 China was attacked from Taiwan after it’s invasion by Japan. Donald Trump told 3.5years in advance how the US would soon be waging war with Russia and China, and could not answer questions about corona virus because of the war.* This is all staged by Rome. *The Pope is the King of the Vatican City State of Rome Italy. He rules over the ten Nations of the Roman Empire. The Country is the smallest in the world, and has its own flag and representatives in the UN, and other political bodies. The Pope rules the Roman Catholic Church, but also the nations that the Church rides. The Pope has 666 on his crown in Latin(vicarivs filii dei). The ten nations have split in to two divisions, which each division will have 5 Kingdoms(Daniel2:44,45) Rome’s image to represent it is the cross or X, which (X=10 in Latin)symbolizes the ten Kingdoms of Rome and their religious beliefs. God refers to this Church State alliance as being responsible for all those exterminated from the earth and history testifies to this. God says,"get out of this organization before its collapse and destruction, or you will be destroyed with her". Revelation 18:4 Get out of her "MY PEOPLE!"* The Red Cross is part of the Roman system masquerading as an aid organization, but is military intelligence. It has the (M.O.B.) mark of the beast as it’s emblem. *Ukraine was part of the Russian Federation until a Western backed coup, which forensic evidence told a different story than video evidence, so there was a conspiracy. NATO supreme Commander Jan Staltenburg admitted NATO is behind the war on Russia and Ukraine. Western media changed the name of the Ukraine Capital from a Russian name to some thing else. The Russian language, history and culture were hidden and suppressed. Those with out blue arm bands would be put to death by Ukrainian forces run by foreigners. Zellensky says that Ukraine will become a Catholic State under the Pope, and that is why Roman Catholics Nancy Palosi and Joe Biden are supporting the war against Ukraine and Russia.* Imagine Germany flying in to PEI(Prince Edward Island) Canada against Canada’s wishes and saying they will supply them with unlimited arms to fight Canada. Eighty five percent of the people of PEI don’t want to separate. Then Germany says that Canada is flying over PEI’s air space, and makes the world think that Canada is violating PEI. Germany sends military jets of theirs and Japan’s to escort a woman to PEI to stir this up, a long with 5 aircraft carrier battle groups. Imagine that! Or what if this happened to Alaska? Well this is happening, but not to PEI, but to Taiwan and China. Taiwan is part of China. Taiwan has no embassies, as they are not a Country, just like PEI is not a Country, but part of Canada. The US and Japan are militarizing an Island near Taiwan, but NATO said they would attack the Soloman Islands if they militarize.(not if they attack, just militarizing) These wars are to hide Revelation 17,18’s identity, and to distract you from the 1918/WW2 like genocide. Comments are being edited by G7 Nations.(security reasons). Truth can stand on it’s own two feet, but lies have to be propped up. Bitcoin is gold backed decentralized, where as the new Church/State digital currency 2023 will be centralized and backed by cow farts and faith. That is why G7 governments are so concerned with cow farts, as they need to control the money supply. The digital currency was going to arrive in 2014, then 2017, then 2020 and now 2023 Executive Order 14067 sec#4 to control buying and selling. WW1 was when the universal income tax was started as a "temporary" measure because of the war, which was to expire after the war. What the G7/NATO did to Russia, cutting off it’s use of the monetary system, will happen to individuals soon. 85% of Taiwanese want to remain a part of China. All the fraudulent leaders must keep Rome propped up to keep their own deceptive systems a float. Religious people say follow God, but in Revelation 17,18 God says that the Church leader that rides the Roman Empire is responsible for all those exterminated from the earth. God tells you there, what the leaders are wearing, Scarlet(Cardinals) and purple(Bishops). Church and State got together and passed laws in the past that only people married in Churches be declared legally married, which is a sign in Revelation 18. People are following Satan as if God. Why tax exempt(Cowardly officials) The virus is information, and a variant is variation of information, and new name =different avenue of attack. A vaccination is a forced computer vaccination. Remember the US law that companies above 100 people had to vaccinate their entire workforce? This was just to destroy businesses. Once you know the 1984 doublespeak, then you will know what is happening. There are two viruses. *One is information that attacks the crown(government/royals), exposing their fraud, and computer anti virus definitions that automatically delete the information from your view. Two the second is a so called virus that attacks humans with signs of sneezing, head pain and breathlessness, like when a person is radiated or gassed. Hitler exterminated using the guise of a typhus epidemic, where he gased people, causing them to sneeze and eventually die(zyklon b, causing suffocation). Look in to the sky and you will see planes spraying the sky in parallel patterns, just before an outbreak. Roman Catholic Adolf Hitler exterminated 12000000 people for Rome, with exterminations under the guise of a typhus epidemic and war on Acts2:44(communism). Rome is Revelation / Apocalypse 17,18 of the Bible. Read, and research it! Man can live for ever, but it is being hid from you, by people who want to dominate and suppress you. There are already technologies to heat and power cars and houses with out requiring any fuel. You can start a car with a key lawfully, but you can also break the car and hot wire it. Technology is under attack, because people are learning about the lies, so Rome is causing unjustified attacks.
    Technology is being exploited to do things that are not lawfully designed to do, and then people attack tech because it is doing some thing it is not supposed to. The government forces technogy to be breached by law enforcement, and then exploited for evil ends. Church/State combine is now working to attack the very fabrication of electronic devices. They are trying to shut down microprocessor production. Why did Nancy Pelosi by military escort breach a sovereign Nation’s land where the microprocessor’s are made? Think! The Pope and Adolf Hitler now proven to have colluded in WW2 exterminations. Take a look at Taiwan and you can see what they did to Russia happening again. We are living in an open air prison, where they kill in the name of God by duped ignorant people for the Protestant and Catholic legs of the Roman Empire. Look at early 15th century Magna Carta documents where it talks how Rome will pay back for the wholesale slaughter of populations. It says to lock them down then go in and exterminate. ​It was done under the guise of a typhus epidemic by Austrian/German Roman Catholic Adolf Hitler during WW2, and now they are doing it under a corona virus pandemic/ monkey pox pandemic. On his radio show, Alex Jones called on Donald J Trump to issue mass death warrants for Americans with no time to wait for the Justice system. Trump authorized death by electrocution, firing squad and poison gas to the already used lethal injection(vaccine by military nurses). Russia built and controls the nuclear power plant and would not bomb themselves. Britain training Ukrainians in Britain to hate and kill Russians. Gog Magog war comes after 1000years peace(Revelation 20:7,8). May be the world missed the 1000 years of peace because of all the wars in the last Century including two world wars. The Roman Pope says they control fiat currencies, and church members should be willing to lose every thing to prop up fiat currencies, and have till end of the month or are considered separated from the church. Collapse coming quickly. Pope 262 killed 6 days after announcing exposé of the Roman Church. The Pope admitted the genocide of the original Native American peoples, and others around the world and declared WW3 is to hide it. German crematoriums running nonstop. Pope visited Canada, admitted genocide, then 12 Native Americans were dead and a supposed man hunt for Native Americans. Was this intimidation? See the skull and snakes on the so called liberator Ukrainian flag? NAZ!S. Killing all with out blue arm bands. Think! !+)!()

  34. ein Google Name kann exakt ganze 100 Zeichen lang seien Wie soll man das denn ohne Satzeichen Füllen on November 22, 2022 at 7:55 am

    "roomie 708nm"
    -me looking for an affordable apartment.

  35. Steven M on November 22, 2022 at 7:56 am

    Well. My mind is blown.

  36. RR RR on November 22, 2022 at 7:57 am

    It’s always a trade between space and computational power

  37. Vilhelm Alfarr Kruse on November 22, 2022 at 7:58 am

    You are truly a great teacher. You make me think I understand 🤩

  38. Alex Diaz on November 22, 2022 at 7:59 am

    This may be the coolest video I’ve ever seen. Like next to the lunar landing levels of cool for me. Thank you.

  39. Russ Cooke on November 22, 2022 at 7:59 am

    No one calls it Cyan except when loading a printer.

  40. Tonny Cassidy on November 22, 2022 at 8:01 am

    Not sure whats the first one about phases, modulation QAM ?

    12:40 looks like TDMA

  41. stephanie parker on November 22, 2022 at 8:01 am

    Let’s give a huge thanks to engineers who figured this shit out. ❤

  42. Bill White on November 22, 2022 at 8:01 am

    Are voice calls converted to data?

  43. Max Jackson on November 22, 2022 at 8:02 am

    Boy oh boy!! Better aeroplane boarding, which is the mostest closest planet and octogons are the besticon, this is not……

  44. Morshed Bhuiyan on November 22, 2022 at 8:03 am

    Fascinating 😮

  45. Lallan Top on November 22, 2022 at 8:03 am

    Complex thing explained in simple way, thanks

  46. Kazixo on November 22, 2022 at 8:07 am


  47. Reuben Wagner on November 22, 2022 at 8:08 am

    Curiosity and nebula makes me sad having satellite internet… i cant justify any amount of money to something that I may or may not be able to use for days or even weeks. One day my money will be theirs and yours…but i fear that may be many years up to decades away.

  48. Gasgano on November 22, 2022 at 8:09 am

    What I just don’t understand about binary is how it knows when one piece of information stops and another one starts. If 01100 is Information A and 00111 is Information B, how does the receiver know that im not transmitting Information C (0110) and Information D (000111) instead?

  49. Joe F on November 22, 2022 at 8:11 am

    The last two years of my EE degree condensed into 15 minutes. Well done!

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