The Engineering Puzzle of Storing Trillions of Bits in your Smartphone / SSD using Quantum Mechanics

The Engineering Puzzle of Storing Trillions of Bits in your Smartphone / SSD using Quantum Mechanics

It’s a puzzle as to how your smartphone or the solid-state drive in your laptop can store gigabytes to terabytes of data by the click of a button! It’s amazing that your devices work flawlessly, and the information doesn’t leak out. In this video, we’ll learn how scientists and engineers use quantum mechanics to store this information reliably. We’ll take a look on the inside of the 3D NAND technology, and see an application of quantum mechanics- specifically quantum tunneling.

0:35 – Where is the storage microchip in your Smartphone?
1:12 – Inside the memory storage microchip.
2:08 – Exploring the walls of the charge trap.
3:00 – Writing information to a memory cell.
3:48 – How Quantum Mechanics is applied to writing to a memory cell.
5:30 – Dimensions of a memory cell.
6:24 – Memory cells DO lose their data… over time.
6:49 – Wrapping up

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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/brancheducation
Website: www.branch.education
Written, animated, and edited- Teddy Tablante
Twitter: @teddytablante
Voice Over- Phil Lee

This video is part of a series that intends to thoroughly explain how SSDs, and more specifically how VNAND works. These are the episodes in the series:
1) [18min] Overview on how SSDs / VNAND / Smartphone storage works.
2) [3min] Quick/Abridged episode of the overview
3) [7.5min] Writing to a memory cell using Quantum Mechanics
4) Reading from a charge trap flash memory cell.
5) How strings of memory cells work (details on a stack of memory cells)
6) How a massive array of memory cells are organized. (Terabit Cell Array Transistor, TCAT)
7) SSD Architecture
8) How is VNAND manufactured?

Key Branches from this video are: Microchips, CPUs, Integrated Circuits, SSDs

Erratum:

Animation built using Blender 2.82a https://www.blender.org/
Post with Adobe Premiere Pro

Book References:
Aritome, Seiichi. (2015). NAND flash memory technologies. IEEE Press Series on Microelectronic Systems. Wiley. [2nd most useful resource]

Cai, Yu et al. (2013) Threshold Voltage Distribution in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization Analysis, and Modeling. 2013 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition. IEEE.

Micheloni, Rino. Marelli, Alessia. Eshghi, Kam. (2018) Inside solid state drives (SSDs) Second edition. Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics Volume 37. Springer. [Most useful resource]

Micheloni, Rino. (2017) Solid-state-drives (SSDs) Modeling, Simulation tools & strategies. Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics Volume 58. Springer

Micheloni, Rino (2016) 3D flash memories. Springer.

Pierret, Robert F. (1996) Semiconductor Device Fundamentals. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Prince, Betty. (2014) Vertical 3D Memory Technologies. Wiley

Internet References:
Crisp, Simon. (29/01/2018) Samsung SSD860 PRO 4TB SSD Review. Kitguru.net
https://www.kitguru.net/components/ssd-drives/simon-crisp/samsung-ssd860-pro-4tb-ssd-review/all/1/ (Accessed 07/05/2020)

Mellor, Chris. (28/07/2016) QLC flash istricky stuff to make and use, so here’s a primer. TheRegister.co.uk
https://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/07/28/qlc_flash_primer/ (Accessed 07/05/2020)

Samsung Website. Samsung 1TB Details and Specifications www.samsung.com
https://www.samsung.com/us/computing/memory-storage/solid-state-drives/ssd-860-evo-2-5–sata-iii-1tb-mz-76e1t0b-am/ (Accessed 07/05/2020)

Samsung Newsroom, Korea. (08/06/2019) Samsung Electronics Takes 3D Memory to New Heights with Sixth-Generation V-NAND SSDs for Client Computing. News.samsung.com
https://news.samsung.com/global/samsung-electronics-takes-3d-memory-to-new-heights-with-sixth-generation-v-nand-ssds-for-client-computing (Accessed 07/05/2020)

Samsung Newsroom, Korea. (07/08/2018) Samsung Electronics Starts Mass Production of Industry’s First 4-bit Consumer SSD. News.Samsung.com
https://news.samsung.com/global/samsung-electronics-starts-mass-production-of-industrys-first-4-bit-consumer-ssd (Accessed 07/05/2020)

Shah, Dhiram. (27/02/2019) Samsung Begins Mass Production of Frist 512 GB eUFS3.0 for Next-Generation Mobile Devices. Fareastgizmos.com
https://fareastgizmos.com/smartphone/samsung-begins-mass-production-of-first-512gb-eufs-3-0-for-next-generation-mobile-devices.php (Accessed 07/05/2020)

Wikipedia contributors. “Charge Trap Flash.” “Flash Memory.” “Floating-gate Mosfet.” “Samsung Electronics.” “Solid-State drive.” “Solid-state storage.” “Three-dimensional integrated circuit.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Visited May, 2020

Yoon, Alex. (15/02/2018) Understanding Memory, An inside look at different memory types and how they work. Semiengineering.com
https://semiengineering.com/whats-really-happening-inside-memory/ (Accessed 07/05/2020)

#SSD #VNAND #Quantum

50 Comments

  1. Diego Penha on December 11, 2021 at 10:51 am

    this is absurdly awesome, these animations and narration make complex engineering sound understandable even for a hardware noob like myself.

  2. mutzikatzi1 on December 11, 2021 at 10:52 am

    And how do you empty the charge trap ?

  3. Felix Maier on December 11, 2021 at 10:56 am

    Clear, easy to understand explanation & beautiful animation. 10/10, will share

  4. Yuri Genalo on December 11, 2021 at 10:57 am

    As a content creator. I highly recommend this channel because it provides informative animation as well as very understandable .nice job.

  5. Your average sadist on December 11, 2021 at 10:57 am

    I really want to thank you! I am currently writing a seminar work for school, chose Hard Drives and Solid state drives as my topic and wanted to have my main emphasis on quantum tunneling and the precise way flash drives work. Your videos really are explained in an amazing way! It’s easy to understand, and shown in great detail. Helped me out a lot!

  6. Greasy Armor on December 11, 2021 at 11:00 am

    But mom this is not hentai image, this is an electron that i saved between 2 dielectric walls.

  7. battle fir on December 11, 2021 at 11:03 am

    I can’t believe that this is real. I mean… wow, incredible !

  8. Alexander Lin on December 11, 2021 at 11:03 am

    Ah! Now I know why my old videos in my laptop become corrupted!

  9. 55_HET PATEL on December 11, 2021 at 11:03 am

    Wowwwwwwww ❤️

  10. Dennis Wofford on December 11, 2021 at 11:03 am

    At about the 4:30 point in the video, my brain exploded.

  11. Hamed Seven on December 11, 2021 at 11:05 am

    so each memory cell just can save 3 bits of data ???? then why a emmc chip has 8 pads of data line!!!???(D0 D1 ……..D7)

  12. Imgema on December 11, 2021 at 11:07 am

    All this amazing tech, engineering and usage of physics, by the greatest minds in the world…. to create devices people throw away after they get a new one a few years later… to watch tik-tok videos and take selfies of their open mouth soy faces.

  13. Karkala Vignesh reddy on December 11, 2021 at 11:07 am

    Simply stunning 👏👑🌟

  14. Jawat Sms on December 11, 2021 at 11:07 am

    amazing Engineering . It Very tiny than imaging .

  15. EDUSRG Learn on December 11, 2021 at 11:08 am

    I love that captions use US forthe transcription, but canadian for explain visuals and extra details. This channel is gold.

  16. Donald Turner on December 11, 2021 at 11:09 am

    Jealousy coming to mind but it seems out of purpose still out of place. Great video

  17. Aayush Shah on December 11, 2021 at 11:13 am

    Is it necessary that charge will leak out after 4 or 5 years?

  18. Yamil Marques on December 11, 2021 at 11:15 am

    Love your videos guys. It’s really easily to "understand" even quantum mechanics..

  19. Avery Brown on December 11, 2021 at 11:15 am

    What the heck, where have you been all my life, this was so amazing. Keep doing what you are doing!!!!

  20. Cotevelino GameDev on December 11, 2021 at 11:16 am

    Amazing video. Great job!!!

  21. Mohamed Tadwala on December 11, 2021 at 11:18 am

    I still don’t understand HOW they make it … like what machines is used to make that 75 atoms thick wall is made

  22. arslan on December 11, 2021 at 11:19 am

    It looks like you’re explaining alien technology

  23. Alireza GumaryaN on December 11, 2021 at 11:20 am

    imazing!!!

  24. manoj on December 11, 2021 at 11:20 am

    🙏good teacher valubal lesson pranam 🙏

  25. mim zim on December 11, 2021 at 11:21 am

    Approx how many ellectrons are needed to be stored for 1 of the 8 levels?

  26. philipcanada78 on December 11, 2021 at 11:21 am

    and still , kids everywhere telling their parent my phone is too old and too slow… and discard such an advance technolgy device every 15 months

  27. Bebeto Campos on December 11, 2021 at 11:23 am

    amazing video!!

  28. Jay Brooks on December 11, 2021 at 11:24 am

    A few questions:
    How do you empty a charge trap?
    Also, you said that applying a positive voltage to gate is how you poll for the level of charge stored in a charge trap, but in this video you say it’s how you increase the charge stored in a charge trap, how is it possible that applying a positive voltage to the gate does both of these functions?

  29. scienceisfun on December 11, 2021 at 11:25 am

    Wow
    That’s a world class and very interesting video💯

  30. Dominus on December 11, 2021 at 11:26 am

    Does the controller chip ‘refresh’ the data when you’re not reading or writing it to keep it uncorrupted, or do you have to copy it ALL every 8-10 years? I guess there’s also correction mechanisms in place in case some bits get corrupted…

  31. upnishadganga on December 11, 2021 at 11:28 am

    Thank you very very much for all group

  32. Marco P-M B on December 11, 2021 at 11:30 am

    hmm does this mean I could potentially "refresh" the stored information to get extra time before the leak is too great and I loose my data?

  33. Hamed Seven on December 11, 2021 at 11:31 am

    Hi

  34. Percy Vile on December 11, 2021 at 11:31 am

    Holy hell

  35. Pablo Simarro on December 11, 2021 at 11:34 am

    Reading data from a page simultaneously is achieved by applying different voltages to the shared control gate and seeing which cells are activated depending on the charge they store. However if the vnand ssd also writes to an entire page simultaneously using the same control gate, how can individual cells get charged differently?
    PS: awesome video and content in your channel!!

  36. Neuro on December 11, 2021 at 11:35 am

    When quantum mechanics gets involved my interpretation is that means we don’t know how it works, but we have math to predict what will happen.

  37. Eugene Elkin on December 11, 2021 at 11:35 am

    NICE AWES0ME C00L_ 🍨🍚🍚🍚🍚🍚🍚🍚🍚 💨 🍮 🥧 🍡 🍧 🍨 🍦 🍰 ❗ 🐬 🌺 🌺 🌺 🥀 🌹 🌷 🍁 💐🍂 🐡🐄 🐅 🐆 🐯 🍣 🍣 🍣 🥘 🍨🍨🍨

  38. AI Totem on December 11, 2021 at 11:37 am

    This changed my whole view on how electrons act

  39. Igor Cruz on December 11, 2021 at 11:39 am

    I’m not sure which is more astonishing, the video quality or the quantum technology.

  40. Na Sha on December 11, 2021 at 11:39 am

    Wait you tell me, that my files will be corrupt in 10 years?

  41. Infrahinium on December 11, 2021 at 11:40 am

    Thanks for explaning how cells could be written to or erased !
    I’ll be waiting for how the bitlines & control gates works !

    Thanks for the subtitles, it helps a ton to understand on a second listening.

    Most likely the best video series I’ve watched so far… freaking amazing !

  42. Kissinger Kiss on December 11, 2021 at 11:41 am

    I will never look at a cheap smartphone the same way again.

  43. Adelian_ on December 11, 2021 at 11:41 am

    The fact that you can zoom in to the level of electrons is just outstanding, incredible effort!

  44. J.Bharadwaj Keerthi 8104 on December 11, 2021 at 11:43 am

    Thank you soo much sir….for giving us a precise, specific and cristal clear explanation ❤️❤️

  45. blacksystem12 on December 11, 2021 at 11:44 am

    Probability Cloud??? Liam Neeson you have lost me! This is mezmerizing.!!

  46. Frank Pitochelli on December 11, 2021 at 11:44 am

    The amazing, absolute amout of serious technology that goes into our electronics in today’s world, yet we just think it’s the way life is and never really give it a second thought..!!!
    Just 40 years ago we would never believe this technology was possible and it’s only just begun.!

  47. Sub Engineer Online on December 11, 2021 at 11:46 am

    a human can do like this detail…and why and how some human can denial a God he make a complete universe same like this from huge to tiny everything perfect

  48. Rubab Mubarrat on December 11, 2021 at 11:48 am

    1.5x speed sounds and looks better

  49. CrazyZachAttack on December 11, 2021 at 11:48 am

    How did they invent this stuff, incredible.

  50. shebaz khan on December 11, 2021 at 11:48 am

    My question is that how can we trap electron because at atomic level everything is in electron than there is no solid thing like wall or boundary possible.
    I don’t have proper words to ask it but you can understand what I want to say.

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